OICR success stories: Dr. Paul Boutros
Researchers find new signatures for prostate cancer
(January 2017) Prostate cancer can be highly curable if caught early and treated. But about 30 per cent of men who appear to have highly treatable disease relapse after initial treatment and develop aggressive disease. There is currently no way to predict which patients fall into this category, and which don’t.
A new DNA “fingerprint” developed by researchers in the CPC-GENE project, led by Drs. Paul Boutros and Robert Bristow, will help to identify those patients that are more likely to develop aggressive disease after treatment and those that will not. This tool will allow doctors to better target treatment to patients, prescribing more aggressive treatment to patients with aggressive disease, while sparing patients with non-aggressive disease from further treatment and the associated side effects. With one in eight Canadian men diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime, this tool has the ability to improve the life of thousands of patients in Canada each year.
The CPC-GENE team, which is the largest prostate cancer genomics project in the world, used state-of-the-art DNA sequencing techniques to better understand the biology of prostate cancer. They searched for mutations in a group of 200 prostate cancer patients and from that created a dataset of 60 trillion data points. From that they were able to identify 41 common mutational events that were seen repeatedly in multiple patients.
The next steps are to validate the fingerprint over the next two to three years. If successful it could lead to a tool that could be used in hospitals and doctors’ offices shortly thereafter.
For more about this story visit OICR News: news.oicr.on.ca/2017/01/pan-canadian-research-team-uncovers-signature-to-reduce-overtreatment-of-prostate-cancer/
Ontario researchers redefine how pancreatic cancer develops
(October 2016) Despite years of research, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most aggressive and deadly types of cancer. More than 5,000 Canadians are newly diagnosed with the disease each year, making clear that new tools are needed to better diagnose it and stop its rapid growth.
Researchers at the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, led by Drs. Faiyaz Notta and Steven Gallinger, have recently made a major breakthrough in understanding the underlying biology of pancreatic cancer, suggesting perhaps the limited success in targeting pancreatic cancer has been due to an incorrect understanding of how it develops and spreads. By using cutting-edge techniques to analyze the whole genome of 100 pancreatic tumours, they showed that instead of growing slowly over time undetected, as previously thought, the DNA alterations that are thought to cause the disease occur all at once.
The results mean researchers can now make better sense of why the disease is so aggressive and why it advances so rapidly. This also means that researchers will be able to develop new solutions for patients living with the disease. Says Dr. Gallinger, “These findings provide us with a new understanding of how pancreatic cancer develops and a path forward to identify better strategies to diagnose and target this terrible disease.”
For more about this story visit OICR News: news.oicr.on.ca/2016/10/challenging-current-view-pancreatic-cancer/
Recruiting and retaining top research talent
OICR created an Investigator Awards Program to recruit and retain outstanding researchers and clinician scientists in Ontario. Twenty-eight scientists are currently supported with investigator awards.
Personalizing prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment
OICR co-founded and co-leads the Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE), the largest prostate cancer genomics project in the world. The project has sequenced tumour and healthy tissue from over 350 patients and is now publishing results of their findings, with the goal of better personalizing prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Finding the genetic origins of cancer
OICR launched and coordinates the International Cancer Genome Consortium, a global collaboration focused on identifying the genomic changes present in 50 tumour types or subtypes. OICR has taken on the study of two types of cancer: pancreatic and prostate.
Facilitating the sharing of research
OICR is a co-founder and co-host of the steering committee of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, which has brought together organizations from around the world to enable the responsible, voluntary and secure sharing of genomic and clinical data. The ultimate goal is to help unlock the great potential of genomic data for human health.
Building companies, creating jobs
OICR created the Fight Against Cancer Innovation Trust (FACIT), which works with OICR and other strategic partners to bring cancer discoveries to market. OICR/FACIT have together supported the development of 23 companies and created 310 highly skilled jobs. FACIT attracted $307 million to Ontario.
Bringing cutting-edge research to patients
OICR/FACIT supported the development of a new cancer vaccine that is now in a Phase I/II clinical trial and could one day be used as a cancer therapy.